What are the causes of bleeding gums?

What are the causes of bleeding gums?

Causes and factors for bleeding gums

The health condition of the gums is one of the important indicators of the health of the body, and there are many reasons behind the occurrence of bleeding gums (in English: Bleeding gums). Bleeding gums is not only related to dental health, but may sometimes occur as a result of certain diseases. In this case, bleeding gums is one of the accompanying symptoms, so the gums must always be examined carefully and carefully, and although bleeding gums is considered one of the most common dental problems, it is advised not to neglect it and consult a dentist if it occurs, and the causes of bleeding gums and risk factors will be explained. leading to it in the following.

Factors associated with oral and dental hygiene

In many cases, bleeding gums is attributed to factors related to oral and dental hygiene, including the following:

  • Start using dental floss or toothbrush after a break.
  • Not brushing your teeth with a toothbrush or toothpaste enough, or as often as recommended by experts.
  • Using the toothbrush incorrectly, or using a worn-out toothbrush, so that it is not able to clean the teeth effectively.
  • Wrong or violent use of dental floss when cleaning, where the correct way is by gently pushing the floss down between the teeth, and encircling the sides of each tooth.

Dental and oral problems

tooth decay

Bleeding gums appears as a symptom of gum disease caused by bacteria that grow on the teeth, as the presence of bacteria with different food residues leads to the formation of a sticky layer on the teeth. Specifically around the gums, and this layer is called the term dental plaque (in English: Plaque), and it is worth noting that this layer has a sticky texture, which contributes to keeping acids in contact with the teeth, and this may result in the breakdown of the enamel layer and the occurrence of tooth decay (in English: tooth decay). , And it may result in keeping the case of tooth decay without treatment, several damages; Among them are gum diseases, which are divided into two types; The first is mild and is called gingivitis, and the second, more serious type is called periodontitis.


Gingivitis is mostly caused by poor oral hygiene.


Leaving the problem of gingivitis untreated may lead to the development of periodontitis, which is a serious infection of the gums that causes chronic inflammation in addition to spacing and separation between the gums and the roots of the teeth, and the formation of a cavity filled with bacteria, dental plaques, and hardened dental plaques known as dental tartar (in English: Tartar), and the condition may lead to damage and loss of tissues and bones supporting the affected tooth if the condition is left untreated and the deposits deepen in the cavity, so the tooth becomes loose and may fall out of its place, and it is worth noting that the patient does not feel pain during the initial stages of this condition, but he may feel pain On touching the gums, it is noted that redness, swelling of the gums, separation of the affected tooth, the appearance of unpleasant odor and bad taste in the mouth, and the way the teeth snap together may change when biting, and the bleeding of the gums easily is clear evidence of a problem in it.

other problems

Bleeding gums may be attributed to other dental diseases, including the following:

  • Dry mouth: This condition is also known as dry mouth syndrome (in English: Xerostomia), and the sufferer suffers from a lack of sufficient amount of saliva and moisture inside the mouth, which leads to increased bacterial growth and thus an increased risk of various gum diseases, and may result from the arrival of infection. Bacterial to gum tissue a range of health diseases, such as; Gum irritation and bleeding.
  • Desquamative gingivitis: a health condition in which the gums appear red, eroded, and ulcerated, and the patient suffers from a set of symptoms if the gums are damaged and damaged, such as; Peeling gums, bleeding, and a feeling of discomfort in the mouth area gets worse when consuming acidic and spicy foods and drinks, and people with desquamative gingivitis are usually diagnosed with certain conditions; These include: erosive lichen planus, mucous membrane pemphigoid, or pemphigus vulgaris.
  • Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis:(in English: Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis), an infection of the gums that results from the excessive and abnormal growth of bacteria that are naturally present in the mouth, and there are a number of factors that may contribute to the development and appearance of the condition, such as; Poor oral hygiene, tension, psychological and physical pressure, malnutrition, lack of sleep, and infection with this type of infection results in suffering from a group of symptoms, such as; Acute pain, bleeding gums, and bad breath. It is worth mentioning that necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis is not considered a contagious disease, and despite the prevalence of mild gum infection, acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis is one of the rare cases in our time, and is usually limited to severe infection on people with weak immune systems; such as those infected with human immunodeficiency virus (in English: human immunodeficiency virus) or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (in English:
  • Gingival enlargement: (in English: Gingival enlargement), which is a state of excessive growth in the gums, and this results in inflammation of the affected tissues, and thus the appearance of the gums in a red and shiny color, and a soft texture, in addition to the ease of bleeding gums, and the reasons behind the infection of the gums are unknown in Many cases.

Orthodontics and dentures

Some cases may require the installation of braces or dentures to overcome certain problems that people suffer from, and it is worth mentioning that the parts of the braces or dentures give a large area of ​​​​the surface of the teeth, and this in itself makes the process of cleaning the teeth and the area under the gums difficult, and may result in This is the accumulation of bacteria and the formation of plaque, which can cause gum disease and bleeding gums.


Gum problems during pregnancy are not associated with an increase in the formation and accumulation of dental plaque, but are caused by pregnancy hormones, as their high levels cause a poor response to dental plaque, thus increasing susceptibility to gum problems, and it should be noted that in the event of suffering from gum problems during pregnancy; It is necessary to see the dentist to check the gums after childbirth, although most of these problems disappear after childbirth; However, there are a small number of patients whose condition may worsen and develop to reach advanced levels of gum disease, which requires an appropriate treatment plan to be followed to control it, and we show in the following some of the gum problems that occur during pregnancy:

  • Gingivitis, and this problem usually appears during the second trimester of pregnancy.
  • Periodontal disease, as undiagnosed or untreated conditions worsen during pregnancy, exacerbating chronic infections.
  • Pyogenic granuloma, which is a condition of local enlargement of the gums, which causes bleeding gums to occur easily, and this condition requires cleaning the affected part in the doctor’s office, and removing it in some rare cases.


The use of some medications may lead to bleeding gums or increase their risk as a side effect, especially if they are not used according to the doctor’s instructions, and therefore the person should adhere to taking the medications in the doses and instructions recommended by the doctor, and in the event of bleeding gums as a side effect, it is necessary to consult a doctor Taking into account the lack of personal diligence in this matter; The doctor alone is able to determine whether the condition requires keeping the treatment as it is and following the instructions that reduce gum bleeding, stopping the medication, reducing its dose, or replacing it with another, and in general we mention among the most prominent medications that may cause bleeding gums or increase their risk as follows :

  • Aspirin, as it causes bleeding gums may be common.
  • warfarin; which dilutes the blood.
  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as ibuprofen and naproxen.
  • Calcium channel blockers, such as amlodipine, verapamil, diltiazem, and nifedipine.
  • Cyclosporine.

Certain health conditions

Deficiency of some vitamins

The following is a statement of the most prominent vitamins whose deficiency may cause bleeding gums:

  • Vitamin K deficiency: Vitamin K deficiency occurs if it is not obtained in sufficient quantities through the diet, or if the body is unable to absorb it well, and this results in bleeding problems. Including severe bleeding gums, and the reason for this is due to the importance of vitamin K in helping the correct clotting of blood, in addition to that; Vitamin K is one of the vitamins that are good for bones.
  • Severe vitamin C deficiency: The condition is also known as scurvy. Such as: gum disease, including bleeding gums, general weakness, anemia, and skin bleeding, and it should be noted that this disease has become rare nowadays.


Diabetes may lead to a poor ability of the mouth to kill germs, and the higher the blood sugar levels due to diabetes; The more difficult the recovery process in the body, which means an increased risk of infection and worsening of the condition, including gum disease, therefore, it is possible to consider bleeding or swollen gums as one of the risk signs of both types of diabetes. the first and the second.


Gingivitis may result as a symptom associated with some forms of viral or bacterial infection; Whether those whose effect is confined to the teeth, gums, or mouth only, or other systemic types at the level of the body,

  • Infection with the herpes simplex virus: Infection with the herpes simplex virus (in English: Herpes simplex virus) leads to a group of symptoms; Including: severe pain, pain in the oral mucosa, and bleeding gums in case of damage.
  • Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus: infection with it leads to a disorder of the immune system, and an increased risk of infection with various forms of infection and other health problems. Including dental problems such as bleeding gums.


Anemia is defined as a state of deficiency in the number of red blood cells present in the blood, and it has many types; Including: pernicious anemia, resulting from poor absorption of vitamin B12 by the body, which usually causes bleeding gums.

Low platelets

Thrombocytopenia results from the lack of sufficient numbers of platelets for blood clotting to occur, which means bleeding in different areas of the body, including the gums; People with thrombocytopenia may have bleeding gums while brushing their teeth, and in these cases the bleeding does not stop on its own.

Bleeding disorders

Various bleeding disorders occur due to the inability of the blood to clot properly, and it is indicated that platelet disorders are the most common cause of their occurrence, which in turn is considered an acquired condition, not a hereditary one, and in this context it is indicated Hemophilia and Von Willebrand disease, which are caused by the absence of some clotting factors in the blood, are examples of bleeding disorders that are transmitted genetically in most cases, bearing in mind that some rare cases are It is not hereditary, as the body in later stages of life forms antibodies that attack the natural blood clotting factors present in the body. In general, a person with bleeding disorders suffers from a group of symptoms, such as; Bleeding gums and easy bruising. Here are some of the most important bleeding disorders:

  • Hereditary hemorrhage: It is the most common hereditary bleeding disorder, although it is rare. It is more common in males than females.
  • Von Willebrand disease: It is one of the genetic diseases that is more prevalent than hereditary hemorrhage, and it occurs due to disorders in coagulation proteins, and affects both females and males.
  • Factor V deficiency: (in English: Factor V deficiency), and the patient suffers from the symptoms that were mentioned previously in addition to bleeding below the surface of the skin, and nosebleeds.

other reasons

Here are some of the reasons for bleeding gums:

  • oral cancer; So that it appears in the form of a painless rash on the surface of the gums, or the inner part of the cheek, or on the tongue, and leads to bleeding gums.
  • leukemia Or what is known as leukemia (in English: Leukemia), as it leads to bleeding gums as a result of a lack of platelets and the body’s production of immature or effective white blood cells. This condition is also accompanied by suffering from a group of other symptoms; Such as: enlarged spleen, liver, and lymph nodes (in English: Lymph node).
  • tension and stress; As this contributes to bleeding gums in two ways; The first is by causing inflammation of the gums, which makes them more susceptible to trauma and harm, and the second is by causing them to suppress the body’s immunity, which supports the development of bacterial infection and inhibits the natural blood clotting processes.
  • Having some other health problems, such as; Lupus erythematosus.

Tips for dealing with bleeding gums

Gum diseases are common conditions, and their symptoms can be alleviated and prevented, and diseases that cause bleeding gums can be avoided by adopting a healthy lifestyle, and following a set of tips that we mention as follows:

  • Brush your teeth carefully and carefully at least twice a day, and use dental floss on a daily basis.
  • Replace your old toothbrush with a new one every 3 or 4 months.
  • Periodically review the dentist; This helps to detect gingivitis early, facilitating its treatment and control, and it is also recommended to see a dental professional periodically in order to remove the layers of tartar and dental plaque accumulated on the teeth.
  • Periodically reviewing the general practitioner to check on general health and to detect the presence of any other health problems that may contribute to gum problems; like diabetes.
  • Quit smoking and discuss with your doctor the best ways to do so.
  • Follow a healthy diet that includes many fresh fruits and vegetables, and reduce the consumption of both processed foods and foods that contain added sugars.
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